Bibliographie

2015


  • Larmarange Joseph et Dabis François (2015) « Is the end of AIDS in sight? » (communication orale (plénière d'ouverture), présenté à Colloque "En Afrique, accoucher après la fin de l’exceptionnalité du sida", Bordeaux. http://anthropologie-sociale.u-bordeaux.fr/Evenements/Colloque-En-Afrique-accoucher-apres-la-fin-de-l-exceptionnalite-du-sida.


  • Larmarange Joseph, Mossong Joël, Bärnighausen Till et Newell Marie Louise (2015) « Participation Dynamics in Population-Based Longitudinal HIV Surveillance in Rural South Africa », PLoS ONE, 10 (4), p. e0123345. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0123345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123345.
    Résumé : Population-based HIV surveillance is crucial to inform understanding of the HIV pandemic and evaluate HIV interventions, but little is known about longitudinal participation patterns in such settings. We investigated the dynamics of longitudinal participation patterns in a high HIV prevalence surveillance setting in rural South Africa between 2003 and 2012, taking into account demographic dynamics. At any given survey round, 22,708 to 30,495 persons were eligible. Although the yearly participation rates were relatively modest (26% to 46%), cumulative rates increased substantially with multiple recruitment opportunities: 68% of eligible persons participated at least once, 48% at least twice and 31% at least three times after five survey rounds. We identified two types of study fatigue: at the individual level, contact and consent rates decreased with multiple recruitment opportunities and, at the population level, these rates also decreased over calendar time, independently of multiple recruitment opportunities. Using sequence analysis and hierarchical clustering, we identified three broad individual participation profiles: consenters (20%), switchers (43%) and refusers (37%). Men were over represented among refusers, women among consenters, and temporary non-residents among switchers. The specific subgroup of persons who were systemically not contacted or refusers constitutes a challenge for population-based surveillance and interventions.


  • Larmarange Joseph (2015) « Dépistage et Traitement Universel : enjeux et état de la recherche », in Les nouveaux enjeux de la prévention combinée du VIH/sida : des apports scientifiques aux pratiques de terrain - Actes du cycle de conférences 2014-2015, éd. par Charlotte Pezeril et Delphine Metten, Bruxelles : Observatoire du sida et des sexualités, Université Saint-Louis – Bruxelles, p. 55-62. ISBN : D/2015-10646/1. http://observatoire-sidasexualites.be/les-nouveaux-enjeux-de-la-prevention-combinee-du-vihsida-des-apports-scientifiques-aux-pratiques-de-terrain/.


  • Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Larmarange Joseph, Boyer Sylvie, Iwuji Collins, McGrath Nuala, Bärnighausen Till, Zuma Thembelile, Dray-Spira Rosemary, Spire Bruno, Rochat Tamsen, Lert France, Imrie John et ANRS 12249 TasP Study Group (2015) « Addressing social issues in a universal HIV test and treat intervention trial (ANRS 12249 TasP) in South Africa: methods for appraisal », BMC Public Health, 15 (1) (mars 1), p. 209. DOI : 10.1186/s12889-015-1344-y. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/15/209/abstract.
    Mots-clés : Antiretroviral treatment, Behaviour, Community, Cost, HIV care, HIV Infections, HIV testing, Social, South Africa.
  • Plazy Mélanie, El Farouki Kamal, Iwuji Collins, Okesola Nonhlanhla, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Larmarange Joseph, Newell Marie-Louise, Pillay Deenan, Dabis François, Dray-Spira Rosemary et ANRS 12249 TasP Study Group (2015) « Entry into care following universal home-based HIV testing in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: the ANRS TasP 12249 cluster-randomised trial » (communication orale n°WEAD0103), présenté à 8th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogeneis, Treatment & Prevention, Vancouver.
    Résumé : Background: In a Universal Test and Treat (UTT) strategy, entry into care soon after HIV diagnosis is crucial to achieve optimal population-antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. We evaluated the rate of, and factors associated with, entry into care following home-based HIV testing in a cluster-randomised trial of the effect of immediate ART on HIV incidence in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods: From March 2012 to May 2014, individuals ≥16 years in ten (2 x 5) clusters were offered home-based HIV testing; those ascertained HIV-positive were referred to TasP trial clinics and were offered universal and immediate ART (intervention clusters) or according to national guidelines (control clusters). Entry into care was defined as attending a TasP clinic within three months of referral among adults not actively in HIV care (no visit to local HIV programme within past 13 months). Associated factors were identified separately by sex, using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Overall, 1,205 adults (72.6% women) not actively in HIV care were referred to a TasP clinic. Of these, 405 (33.6%) attended a TasP clinic within three months (no difference between trial arms): 32.5% of women, 36.7% of men. Participants who ever visited the local HIV programme (n=360) were more likely to enter into care than those who didn''t (women: adjusted Odd-Ratio (aOR) 1.76, 95% Confidence Interval [1.26-2.45]; men: 2.07 [1.18-3.64]). In women (n=875), those less likely to attend a TasP clinic within three months had completed some secondary school (0.51 [0.33-0.79]) or at least secondary school (0.47 [0.29-0.76]) versus below primary school; were living 1-2 km from a TasP clinic (0.43 [0.30-0.62]) or 2-5 km (0.40 [0.27-0.61]) versus < 1 km; didn''t know anyone HIV+ within their family (0.60 [0.43-0.81]) and didn''t agree that it is good to initiate ART as soon as possible if infected (0.47 [0.26-0.85]); among men (n=330), none of the factors examined was significantly associated with entry into care. Conclusions: Only one-third of HIV-positive adults referred after home-based HIV testing entered into care within three months in this rural South African community with a 30% HIV prevalence. Innovative interventions should be considered to ensure the success of a UTT strategy.

  • Plazy Melanie, ElFarouki Kamal, Iwuji Collins, Okesola Nonhlanhla, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Larmarange Joseph, Newell Marie-Louise, Pillay Deenan, Dabis Francois et Dray-Spira Rosemary (2015) « Entry into care following universal home-based HIV testing in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: the ANRS TasP 12249 cluster-randomized trial », Journal of the International Aids Society, 18 (juillet). DOI : 10.7448/IAS.18.5.20409.

2014

  • Dah Ter Tiero Elias, Larmarange Joseph, Guiard Schmid Jean-Baptiste, Orne-Gliemann Joanna et Becquet Renaud (2014) « Facteurs associés à la non utilisation du condom lors des derniers rapports homo et hétérosexuel chez des HSH à Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso » (communication orale n°SO7.2), présenté à 7e Conférence Internationale Francophone sur le VIH et les Hépatites (AFRAVIH), Montpellier.
    Résumé : Introduction L’utilisation du condom est l’une des mesures conseillée auprès des populations pour lutter contre l’acquisition ou la transmission sexuelle du VIH. Notre recherche avait pour but de déterminer les facteurs associés à la non utilisation du condom chez des HSH de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso. Méthodes Une étude transversale autorisée par le comité d’éthique a été conduite d’avril à septembre 2013, auprès d’un échantillon constitué de HSH qui résidaient à Ouagadougou, recrutés par la technique de « boule de neige », âgés d’au moins 18 ans et acceptant de participer à l’étude. Les données ont été recueillies par un questionnaire administré en face à face par deux enquêteurs formés. La recherche de facteurs associés s’est faite par régression logistique. Résultats Après les analyses univariée au seuil conservateur de 20%, et multivarié au seuil de 5%, la connaissance du statut sérologique du dernier partenaire sexuel est associée à la non utilisation du préservatif lors du dernier rapport homosexuel ajustée sur l’âge de l’enquêté, l’âge du dernier partenaire sexuel, le pôle d’activité sexuelle lors des douze derniers mois. Concernant le dernier rapport hétérosexuel, seule la qualification donnée par l’enquêté à la dernière partenaire sexuelle est associée à la non utilisation du préservatif en analyse univariée au seuil de 20%. Conclusion L’analyse des facteurs associés à la non utilisation du condom est nécessaire pour la définition et l’élaboration d’intervention à l’endroit des HSH.
  • Enel Catherine, Desgrées du Loû Annabel, N'Dri Yoman Thérèse, Danel Christine, Larmarange Joseph et Groupe DOD-CI ANRS 12287 (2014) « Les hépatites virales B et C en Côte d’Ivoire : l’urgence d’une dynamisation de la lutte » (poster Po M20.18), présenté à 7e Conférence Internationale Francophone sur le VIH et les Hépatites (AFRAVIH), Montpellier.
    Résumé : En Côte d’Ivoire, la prévalence du VHB avoisine 12 %, celle du VHC 5 %, alors que celle du VIH serait d’environ 3 % actuellement. Malgré ces chiffres alarmants, le dépistage et la prise en charge des hépatites virales B et C demeurent très limités [Séri 2013]. Nous avons mené une enquête qualitative entre mars et juin 2013 à Abidjan, avec pour objectifs de faire un état des lieux des freins et modalités facilitatrices de l’offre et de la demande de dépistage des hépatites B et C, et d’évaluer le degré d’implication des décideurs et bailleurs en santé. Nos résultats montrent une grande méconnaissance de ces infections, tant en population générale que parmi les soignants non spécialistes. En matière de dépistage, l’offre est limitée, la demande quasi inexistante, et l’insuffisance de formation du personnel de santé engendre de nombreuses occasions manquées. Seuls les donneurs de sang sont systématiquement dépistés, mais sans prévention par la vaccination contre l’hépatite B ou prise en charge thérapeutique. Le coût élevé des traitements, officiellement disponibles, les rend inaccessibles en l’absence de couverture maladie universelle. Le Programme National de Lutte contre les Hépatites Virales, créé en 2008, ne dispose pas du budget nécessaire pour pratiquer dépistage, prise en charge, prévention et campagnes d’informations destinées au grand public. L’absence de forte mobilisation financière internationale, comme celle qu’a connue l’épidémie de VIH, est vécue comme une grande injustice, tant par les médecins spécialisés qui ont les compétences pour traiter la maladie mais pas les moyens de les mettre au service des patients, que par les personnes porteuses d’une hépatite chronique B et/ou C. Ces résultats alertent sur l’urgence d’alimenter un plaidoyer pour une dynamisation de la lutte contre les hépatites B et C en Côte d’Ivoire et la nécessité de poursuivre la recherche en ce domaine.

  • Iwuji Collins, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Tanser Frank, Thiébaut Rodolphe, Larmarange Joseph, Okesola Nonhlanhla, Newell Marie-Louise et Dabis François (2014) « Feasibility and acceptability of an antiretroviral treatment as prevention (TasP) intervention in rural South Africa: results from the ANRS 12249 TasP cluster-randomised trial » (communication orale n°WEAC0105LB), présenté à 20th International AIDS Conference, Melbourne. http://pag.aids2014.org/session.aspx?s=1118.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2014) « Bisexualité masculine en Afrique subsaharienne : quels indicateurs dans les enquêtes quantitatives ? » (communication orale), présenté à 1er Congrès des Études de Genre en France, Lyon. http://genrelyon2014.sciencesconf.org/40206.
    Résumé : Les enquêtes quantitatives menées sur le continent africain depuis 2004 auprès des hommes ayant des rapports sexuels avec d’autres hommes (HSH) utilisent en majorité des approches du type « boules de neige » dont l’approche dite RDS (respondent driven survey). Dès lors, les individus les plus insérés dans un « milieu HSH » ont une plus grande probabilité d’être inclus, induisant une surreprésentation des jeunes et des homosexuels exclusifs. La bisexualité y est mesurée soit au travers du sexe des partenaires ou pôle d’activité sexuel (calculé selon les articles sur les six derniers mois, la dernière année ou toute la vie), soit en fonction de l’identité déclarée des enquêtés (homosexuel/gay, bisexuel ou hétérosexuel, peu d’enquêtes proposant d’autres termes identifiants en langue locale). Plus rares, quelques enquêtes ont également mesuré l’attirance sexuelle (pour les hommes et/ou les femmes). La part des bisexuels parmi les HSH africains est généralement beaucoup plus élevée qu’en Occident. Par rapport aux homosexuels exclusifs, les bisexuels ont des biographies sentimentales et sexuelles sensiblement différentes. Cependant, il ne s’agit pas d’une catégorie homogène que ce soit en termes de désirs, d’identité ou de projets de vie. Plusieurs auteurs ont souligné les limites d’une catégorisation binaire (homosexuels/bisexuels) ouvrant le débat sur quelles catégorisations alternatives utiliser à l’avenir dans les enquêtes quantitatives.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2014) « Dépister & Traiter : entre bénéfice individuel et bénéfice collectif » (communication orale), présenté à Journée d’étude de l'ENS "Les essais cliniques, quelles preuves pour quels résultats ?", Lyon. http://triangle.ens-lyon.fr/spip.php?article4294.
    Résumé : Le traitement antirétroviral (ARV) comme moyen de prévention de la transmission du VIH constitue actuellement l’une des questions scientifiques majeures dans le domaine de la lutte contre le Sida. Plusieurs grands essais, dont TasP (ANRS 12249) et PopART, sont en cours pour tester l’efficacité d’une approche dite « dépister et traiter », dans des contextes hyper-endémiques. Il s’agit d’essais menés en population générale, randomisés en grappes. À la différence des essais cliniques « classiques », la sélection aléatoire n’est pas effectuée sur des individus mais sur des zones géographiques ou grappes, avec l’hypothèse que ces grappes permettent de capter des réseaux sexuels endogènes. Une autre particularité de ce type d’essai est de mettre en place une intervention auprès de certains individus (mise sous ARV immédiate, quelle que soit la situation clinique ou biologique, des personnes infectées par le VIH) pour en mesurer l’effet sur d’autres individus (les personnes non infectées au début de l’essai), sous l’hypothèse d’un bénéfice collectif du traitement (la baisse des nouvelles infections). Or, un tel bénéfice collectif ne peut se justifier à lui seul s’il n’y a pas également un bénéfice individuel, bénéfice non encore prouvé au-dessus de 500 CD4, les essais TEMPRANO et START n’ayant pas encore publié leurs résultats. De plus, ce bénéfice collectif est fortement dépendant du taux de participation dans l’étude. Par ailleurs, dû l’évolution rapide des recommandations internationales (l’OMS préconisant maintenant une mise sous ARV à 500 CD4), il y a un risque que ces essais ne puissent conclure du fait de la dilution de l’effet entre bras interventionnel et bras témoin. Quelles seraient alors les recommandations à tirer de ces essais ? Enfin, au-delà des essais eux-mêmes, les stratégies « dépister et traiter » posent plusieurs questions éthiques, notamment autour du « déplacement » de la responsabilité de la transmission vers la personne ne prenant pas son traitement ou encore de la fin de l’exceptionnalité du dépistage du VIH malgré le fait que cette pathologie reste fortement stigmatisante.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2014) Zimbabwe: Developing subnational estimates of HIV prevalence and the number of people living with HIV (JC2665E), Geneva : UNAIDS, 18 p. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2014/2014_subnationalestimatessurvey_Zimbabwe.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2014) United Republic of Tanzania: Developing subnational estimates of HIV prevalence and the number of people living with HIV (JC2665E), Geneva : UNAIDS, 24 p. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2014/2014_subnationalestimatessurvey_Tanzania.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2014) Malawi: Developing subnational estimates of HIV prevalence and the number of people living with HIV (JC2665E), Geneva : UNAIDS, 15 p. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2014/2014_subnationalestimatessurvey_Malawi.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2014) Guinea: Developing subnational estimates of HIV prevalence and the number of people living with HIV (JC2665E), Geneva : UNAIDS, 17 p. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2014/2014_subnationalestimatessurvey_Guinea.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2014) Côte d'Ivoire: Developing subnational estimates of HIV prevalence and the number of people living with HIV (JC2665E), Geneva : UNAIDS, 21 p. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2014/2014_subnationalestimatessurvey_CotedIvoire.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2014) Cameroon: Developing subnational estimates of HIV prevalence and the number of people living with HIV (JC2665E), Geneva : UNAIDS, 21 p. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2014/2014_subnationalestimatessurvey_cameroon.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2014) Burundi: Developing subnational estimates of HIV prevalence and the number of people living with HIV (JC2665E), Geneva : UNAIDS, 17 p. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2014/2014_subnationalestimatessurvey_Burundi.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2014) Burkina Faso: Developing subnational estimates of HIV prevalence and the number of people living with HIV (JC2665E), Geneva : UNAIDS, 17 p. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2014/2014_subnationalestimatessurvey_BurkinaFaso.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2014) Uganda: Developing subnational estimates of HIV prevalence and the number of people living with HIV (JC2665E), Geneva : UNAIDS, 22 p. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2014/2014_subnationalestimatessurvey_Uganda.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2014) Rwanda: Developing subnational estimates of HIV prevalence and the number of people living with HIV (JC2665E), Geneva : UNAIDS, 17 p. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2014/2014_subnationalestimatessurvey_Rwanda.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2014) Lesotho: Developing subnational estimates of HIV prevalence and the number of people living with HIV (JC2665E), Geneva : UNAIDS, 16 p. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2014/2014_subnationalestimatessurvey_Lesotho.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2014) Haiti: Developing subnational estimates of HIV prevalence and the number of people living with HIV (JC2665E), Geneva : UNAIDS, 17 p. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2014/2014_subnationalestimatessurvey_Haiti.


  • Larmarange Joseph, Balestre Eric, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Iwuji Collins, Okesola N., Newell M.L., Dabis François et Lert France (2014) « HIV ascertainment through repeat home-based testing in the context of a treatment as prevention trial (ANRS 12249 TasP) in rural South Africa », AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 30 (Suppl. 1), p. A287. DOI : 10.1089/aid.2014.5650.abstract. http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010063442.


  • Larmarange Joseph et Bendaud Victoria (2014) « HIV estimates at second subnational level from national population-based surveys: », AIDS, 28, p. S469-S476. DOI : 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000480. http://content.wkhealth.com/linkback/openurl?sid=WKPTLP:landingpage&an=00002030-201411004-00008.

  • Larmarange Joseph, Coulibaly Siriki, Koriko Ousman et Fall Madior (2014) « Appréhender la structure écodémographique des ménages à partir d’enquêtes économiques : l’exemple des Enquêtes sur les Dépenses des Ménages 2008 », Statéco, 108, p. 75-97. http://www.epsilon.insee.fr/jspui/handle/1/26633.
    Résumé : Lieu premier de socialisation des individus, le ménage constitue une dimension essentielle à la compréhension des changements à l’œuvre dans les sociétés africaines. Une description fine de la structure démographique des ménages nécessite des dispositifs de collecte complexes et coûteux. Cependant, même avec des enquêtes dont la finalité première n’est pas l’analyse démographique des ménages, il est déjà possible de dresser un panorama de leur diversité. Dans cet article, en partant des Enquêtes sur les Dépenses des Ménages menées en 2008 dans les capitales de l’UEMOA, nous montrons comment il est possible de tirer parti de la variable “dispose d’un revenu monétaire” pour construire une ypologie « éco-démographique » des ménages, rendant compte de leur taille et de leur structure de dépendance et permettant de raduire la diversité des situations rencontrées par les familles usuellement classées comme « élargies ».

  • Larmarange Joseph, Kassoum Ouattara, Kacou Élise, Fradier Yves, Lazare Sika, Danel Christine et groupe DOD-CI ANRS 12287 (2014) « Faisabilité et Représentativité d’un échantillonnage aléatoire de lignes mobiles en Côte d’Ivoire : résultats d’une étude pilote » (communication orale), présenté à 8e Colloque Francophone sur les Sondages, Dijon. http://sondages2014.sfds.asso.fr/prog/#2014-11-18.
    Résumé : Nous présentons les résultats d’une enquête exploratoire pilote visant à tester la faisabilité et la représentativité d’une enquête nationale en population générale en Côte d’Ivoire à partir d’un échantillon aléatoire de numéros de téléphone portable. Nous montrons que les ivoiriens sont aisément joignables et acceptent facilement de répondre à des questions par téléphone, y compris sur des sujets sensibles. Les refus étaient peu nombreux et inférieurs à ce qui est usuellement observé dans des enquêtes similaires en France. En termes de représentativité, l’échantillon obtenu s’avère être plus jeune, plus urbain et plus masculin. Nous avons comparé quatre indicateurs avec l’Enquête Démographique et de Santé (EDS) réalisée en 2011/12. Du fait des biais de sélection de notre enquête (recrutement uniquement d’abonnés mobiles en particulier), les indicateurs mesurés étaient plus élevés que ceux observés dans l’EDS 2011/12. Cependant, les différentiels observés par sexe, groupe d’âges, niveau d’instruction et milieu de résidence étaient similaires dans les deux enquêtes. Il nous paraît envisageable de réaliser aujourd’hui une enquête nationale en Côte d’Ivoire selon cette approche, moyennant quelques ajustements, dont la prise en compte des non abonnés mobile résidant dans le même ménage qu’un abonné mobile.
    Pièce jointe Résumé long.pdf 750.5 ko

  • Larmarange Joseph, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Balestre Eric, Iwuji Collins, Okesola Nonhlanhla, Newell Marie-Louise, Dabis François, Lert France et TasP ANRS 12249 Study Group (2014) « HIV ascertainment through repeat home-based testing in the context of a Treatment as Prevention trial (ANRS 12249 TasP) in rural South Africa » (poster P52.05), présenté à HIV Research for Prevention, Cape Town. DOI : 10.1089/aid.2014.5650.abstract.
    Résumé : Background The ANRS 12249 TasP cluster-randomised trial evaluates whether HIV testing of all members of a community, followed by immediate antiretroviral treatment (ART) for infected people, will prevent onward sexual transmission and reduce HIV incidence at population level. Ascertaining the HIV status of a high proportion of the population regularly and repeatedly is key to the success of any universal test and treat strategy, as the first step of the HIV cascade. Methods Between March 2012 and March 2014, we implemented three six-monthly rounds of home-based HIV counselling and testing in ten local communities (clusters). At each home visit, individual questionnaires were administered and a rapid HIV test offered to all trial participants. We report early results on rates of HIV ascertainment, defined as undergoing a rapid HIV test or HIV-positive self-report. Results Of 12,911 eligible individuals (resident in the trial area and ≥16 years), 10,007 were successfully contacted at least once. At first contact, HIV status was ascertained for 7,628 (76.2% [95% CI: 75.4-77.1]) individuals. At second contact, among the 5,885 individuals contacted a second time, HIV status was ascertained for 2,829 (85.0% [95% CI: 83.7-86.2]) of the 3,328 tested negative at first contact and for 543 (45.7% [95% CI: 42.9-48.6]) of the 1,188 who refused a rapid test at first contact. Overall, HIV ascertainment rate was 89.0% (5,239/5,885 [95% CI: 88.2-89.8]) among trial participants contacted twice. Conclusions Repeat home-based HIV testing is acceptable and feasible in this rural area. Socio-demographic characteristics, behaviours, attitudes, household characteristics and experience of HIV infection and ART in the household will be explored for their association with HIV ascertainment uptake. This will inform whether this intervention reaches the individuals at higher risk in a rural South African region.

  • Vogt Adam, Andrew Alastair, Zvoleff Alex, Manton Ashley, Diggs Brian, Pereira Cassio, Robinson David, Hirschmann Fabian, Simeon Fitch, Detrez Gregoire, Wickham Hadley, Jeon Heewon, Burkhead Jake, Manton James, Arnold Jeff, Stephens Jeremy, Hester Jim, Cheng Joe, Honaker John, Keane Jonathan, Allaire J. J., Toloe Johan, Larmarange Joseph, Barnier Julien, Smith Kevin K., Mueller Kirill, Takahashi Kohske, Friendly Michael, Kuhlmann Michel, Caballero Nacho, Salkowski Nick, Ross Noam, Li Qiang, Vaidyanathan Ramnath, Cotton Richard, Francois Romain, Brouwer Sietse, Bernard Simon de, Wei Taiyun, Lamadon Thibaut, Leeper Thomas, Torsney-Weir Tom, Davis Trevor, Veitas Viktoras, Zhu Weicheng, Wu Wush et Xie Yihui (2014) Knitr: A General-Purpose Package for Dynamic Report Generation in R, version 1.8. http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/knitr/index.html.
    Résumé : This package provides a general-purpose tool for dynamic report generation in R, which can be used to deal with any type of (plain text) files, including Sweave, HTML, Markdown, reStructuredText, AsciiDoc, and Textile. R code is evaluated as if it were copied and pasted in an R terminal thanks to the evaluate package (e.g., we do not need to explicitly print() plots from ggplot2 or lattice). R code can be reformatted by the formatR package so that long lines are automatically wrapped, with indent and spaces added, and comments preserved. A simple caching mechanism is provided to cache results from computations for the first time and the computations will be skipped the next time. Almost all common graphics devices, including those in base R and add-on packages like Cairo, cairoDevice and tikzDevice, are built-in with this package and it is straightforward to switch between devices without writing any special functions. The width and height as well as alignment of plots in the output document can be specified in chunk options (the size of plots for graphics devices is also supported). Multiple plots can be recorded in a single code chunk, and it is also allowed to rearrange plots to the end of a chunk or just keep the last plot. Warnings, messages and errors are written in the output document by default (can be turned off). The large collection of hooks in this package makes it possible for the user to control almost everything in the R code input and output. Hooks can be used either to format the output or to run R code fragments before or after a code chunk. The language in code chunks is not restricted to R (there is simple support to Python and shell scripts, etc). Many features are borrowed from or inspired by Sweave, cacheSweave, pgfSweave, brew and decumar.

2013


  • Barnier Julien, Briatte François et Larmarange Joseph (2013) Questionr, R package to make surveys processing easier, version 0.3.0. http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/questionr/.
    Résumé : This R package provides some convenience functions to make the processing and analysis of surveys easier.

  • Barnier Julien et Larmarange Joseph (2013) « Introduction à l'analyse d'enquêtes avec R », Support de cours. https://github.com/larmarange/intro-r/tree/CoursM2.
    Résumé : A partir d’un document original de Julien Barnier, complété par Joseph Larmarange. Le chapitre sur l'analyse de séquences est une reprise d'un article original de Nicolas Robette. Ce document évolutif, sous licence Creative Commons, est développé sous GitHub : https://github.com/larmarange/intro-r/tree/CoursM2
  • Brouard Nicolas, Larmarange Joseph, Ambrosetti Elena, Duthé Géraldine et Giudici Cristina (2013) « Toward an harmonized second edition of the Multilingual Demographic Dictionary: the Demopædia project » (communication orale, session 70), présenté à XXVII IUSSP International Population Conference, Busan.
    Résumé : The Demopædia project has set, as a first goal, to give access to demographers all editions of the Multilingual Demographic Dictionary published since the 50's. Computerization has shown that if the first editions were consistent over the 1100 concepts, very large gaps, most often due to omissions undermined the overall quality of the second edition of the multilingual dictionary, 1492 concepts for the French (1981), 1475 for the English (1982), 1495 Spanish (1985),1555 for the German (1987). The harmonization process consists in maximizing the corpus to 1581 concepts. The Communication will review the volumes already harmonized in French and Italian, published or forthcoming, as the new Asian languages that emerged after the workshops of Paris (2007) and Chiang Mai (2012). If we may regret a modern third edition, this standardization process is a necessary step. The availability of all texts and cross-languages indexes on any kind of media from paper book up to digital tablets is an asset. This harmonization phase is also an opportunity for the community of demographers to prepare the third edition by proposing a succinct definition of new terms or expressions which are emerging on the Open Encyclopedia Population platform both in English and in about 20 languages.

  • Demopædia (2013) Cross-Reference Index of the Multilingual Demographic Dictionary in English, French and Spanish, Paris : Demopædia, 198 p. http://www.demopaedia.org.

  • Demopædia (2013) Multilingual Demographic Dictionary, unified second edition, English volume, Paris : Demopædia, 177 p. http://en-ii.demopaedia.org.
  • Imrie John, Larmarange Joseph, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Iwuji Collins, Lert France et ANRS 12249 TasP Study Group (2013) « Issues emerging from universal test and treat (UTT) intervention trials » (communication orale n°CS20#2), présenté à 2nd International Conference for the Social Sciences and Humanities in HIV, Paris.
    Résumé : Universal repeat testing and early antiretroviral treatment (UTT) strategies to reduce onward sexual transmission are major social, as well as biomedical interventions. Several UTT trials are underway or being prepared. This paper discusses some emerging issues arguing extensive social science within UTT trials needs complementary enquiry to guide public health and operational decisions beyond the trials themselves. The issues fall under three broad headings: 1) Social and behavioural consequences of large numbers of people knowing their HIV-status and potentially beginning treatment early. Will the impacts on sexual behaviour, disclosure and stigma all be positive? Harmful? 2) Normative changes at individual and community levels. What normative changes occur in communities exposed to prolonged, intense research around unspoken or socially taboo subjects? Does seeing more healthy people attending clinics alter community perceptions of disease and care? Can salient positive changes be identified and replicated? 3) Operational and ethical implications of transforming research interventions into routine care. Who should lead? Requirements for sustainability. Impacts of institutions ‘knowing’ about individuals’ HIV status and care uptake, especially in contexts of criminalisation and marginalised or vulnerable populations? UTT strategies have potentially great social consequences that need to be explored alongside the actual trials, to guide and inform future decisions and policy.
  • Imrie John, Larmarange Joseph, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Lert France et ANRS 12249 TasP Study Group (2013) « Taking test and treat interventions to the next level – Beginning to think what additional information needs to guide public health and operational decisions? » (poster n°2289118), présenté à 6th South African AIDS Conference, Durban.
    Résumé : Background The proposition universal repeat HIV testing and early initiation of antiretroviral treatment for all HIV-positives (UTT) can lead to reduced HIV incidence is being, or will be, tested in several studies. UTT interventions are major social, as well as biomedical interventions, for individuals and target communities. Implementing UTT trial (ANRS 12249 TasP Trial) provoked thinking about what is needed for public health and operational decisions to move to the next level if UTT efficacy is demonstrated. Methods In ANRS 12249 Tasp Trial innovative social science tools are implemented at each UTT stage to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the social determinants of intervention uptake at the individual and community-level and the impacts at individual, household and community level. But these alone cannot guide such a decision. Results Additional questions requiring answers: Social and Behavioural consequences of UTT: What are the long-term social and behavioural consequences of large numbers of people knowing their HIV-status and starting treatment early? Will impacts on sexual behaviour, disclosure and stigma necessarily be positive, now and in the long term? Changes in individual and community norms: Will community perceptions of HIV and healthcare be changed seeing healthy people going to clinics? How are community norms around testing and treatment, stigma and discrimination affected by prolonged, intense research? Can salient positive changes be identified and replicated? Operational and ethical implications of moving UTT into routine care: Who should lead? What are the sustainability requirements? What ethical issues are there in authorities ‘knowing’ individuals’ HIV status and care uptake? Conclusions UTT strategies have potentially great social consequences for the individuals and populations involved. Questions emerging from UTT trials need further enquiry before public health and operational decisions to move beyond the trials are made.


  • Iwuji Collins C, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Tanser Frank, Boyer Sylvie, Lessells Richard J, Lert France, Imrie John, Bärnighausen Till, Rekacewicz Claire, Bazin Brigitte, Newell Marie-Louise, Dabis François et ANRS 12249 TasP study group (2013) « Evaluation of the impact of immediate versus WHO recommendations-guided antiretroviral therapy initiation on HIV incidence: the ANRS 12249 TasP (Treatment as Prevention) trial in Hlabisa sub-district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial », Trials, 14 (1), p. 230. DOI : 10.1186/1745-6215-14-230. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01509508?term=anrs+12249&rank=1.
    Résumé : BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV viral load in all body compartments and so limits the risk of HIV transmission. It has been suggested that ART not only contributes to preventing transmission at individual but potentially also at population level. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of ART initiated immediately after identification/diagnosis of HIV-infected individuals, regardless of CD4 count, on HIV incidence in the surrounding population. The primary outcome of the overall trial will be HIV incidence over two years. Secondary outcomes will include i) socio-behavioural outcomes (acceptability of repeat HIV counselling and testing, treatment acceptance and linkage to care, sexual partnerships and quality of life); ii) clinical outcomes (mortality and morbidity, retention into care, adherence to ART, virologic failure and acquired HIV drug resistance), iii) cost-effectiveness of the intervention. The first phase will specifically focus on the trial's secondary outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: A cluster-randomised trial in 34 (2 × 17) clusters within a rural area of northern KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), covering a total population of 34,000 inhabitants aged 16 years and above, of whom an estimated 27,200 would be HIV-uninfected at start of the trial. The first phase of the trial will include ten (2 × 5) clusters. Consecutive rounds of home-based HIV testing will be carried out. HIV-infected participants will be followed in dedicated trial clinics: in intervention clusters, they will be offered immediate ART initiation regardless of CD4 count and clinical stage; in control clusters they will be offered ART according to national treatment eligibility guidelines (CD4 <350 cells/μL, World Health Organisation stage 3 or 4 disease or multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis). Following proof of acceptability and feasibility from the first phase, the trial will be rolled out to further clusters. DISCUSSION: We aim to provide proof-of-principle evidence regarding the effectiveness of Treatment-as-Prevention in reducing HIV incidence at the population level. Data collected from the participants at home and in the clinics will inform understanding of socio-behavioural, economic and clinical impacts of the intervention as well as feasibility and generalizability. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01509508; South African Trial Register: DOH-27-0512-3974.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2013) Biblio Check, plugin SPIP pour la vérification en ligne de références bibliographiques, SPIP, version 1.0. http://contrib.spip.net/?article4310.

  • Larmarange Joseph (2013) « Impact de la couverture antirétrovirale dans la population générale en contexte hyper-endémique sud-africain », Vih.org, avril 29. http://www.vih.org/20130429/impact-couverture-antiretrovirale-dans-population-generale-en-contexte-hyper-endemique-sud-.
    Résumé : L'accès universel aux antirétroviraux (ARV) reste un des enjeux majeurs de la lutte contre l'épidémie de VIH. Il s'agit non seulement de réduire les décès en maintenant les personnes infectées en vie, mais également, espère-t-on depuis quelques années, de pouvoir réduire les nouvelles infections. Deux articles publiés récemment et conjointement dans la revue Science analyse l'impact en population générale de l'augmentation de l'accès aux ARV sur la mortalité et l'incidence dans une zone rurale sud-africaine.
  • Larmarange Joseph (2013) « Mapping Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS): a method to estimate regional trends of a proportion (prevR) » (poster, session 176), présenté à XXVII IUSSP International Population Conference, Busan.
    Résumé : For many countries, in particular in sub-Saharan Africa, Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are the main national source of data (depending on the subject). Several DHS collect latitude and longitude of surveyed clusters but the sampling method is not appropriate to derive local estimates: sample size is not large enough for a direct spatial interpolation. We develop a methodological approach for estimating a proportion by using kernel density estimators with adaptive bandwidths of equal number of persons surveyed. The method was tested by creating a fictitious country from which survey datasets were produced. We compared the prevalence surface estimated from survey data with the model’s original prevalence surface. This method makes it possible to achieve a smoothing effect that adapts to the high irregularity of spatial distribution among the survey clusters. The surfaces thus generated are relatively accurate for densely populated areas and strongly smoothed in sparsely surveyed areas. Although local variations were filtered out, the regional component in the spatial variation of prevalence was reproduced, and the estimated prevalence surfaces could be interpreted as regional trend surfaces. Furthermore, this approach could be easily applied using prevR, a dedicated package for the statistical software R.
  • Larmarange Joseph (2013) « Treatment as Prevention: new challenges regarding HIV testing in Southern Africa and Western Africa » (communication orale), présenté à Les Grands Défis Démographiques du 21e siècle - Saison croisée France Afrique du Sud - iPOPs, Paris.
    Résumé : Treatment as prevention (TasP) strategy or more precisely universal repeat HIV testing and early treatment initiation (UTT) could reduce significantly the number of new HIV infections in general population. Several on-going trials are currently testing the feasibility and the efficacy of this approach in Southern Africa. The UTT strategy changes the whole paradigm of HIV prevention and care and has potentially great social consequences that need to be explored. We will explore some of emerging issues in social science raised by these trials. Moreover, epidemiological contexts are different between Southern Africa and Western Africa: UTT strategies cannot be implemented in the same way. Which questions should be specifically addressed to implement UTT strategy in Western Africa?

  • Larmarange Joseph (2013) JLutils: a collection of diverse R functions, version 0.1.0. https://github.com/larmarange/JLutils.
    Résumé : A collection of diverse R functions who don't fit (yet?) in another package.
  • Larmarange Joseph, Imrie John, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Iwuji Collins, Lert France et ANRS 12249 TasP Study Group (2013) « Socio-economic issues investigated in an HIV Treatment as Prevention (TasP) trial in rural KwaZulu-Natal: research questions, implementation and progress » (poster n°2288617), présenté à 6th South African AIDS Conference, Durban.
    Résumé : Background HIV testing of all adult members of a community, followed by immediate antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation of HIV-infected participants, regardless of immunological or clinical staging, could prevent onward transmission and reduce HIV incidence. The community cluster-randomized ANRS 12249 Treatment as Prevention (TasP) trial has been designed to test acceptability, feasibility and efficacy of this strategy in Hlabisa sub-district, KwaZulu-Natal. In addition to epidemiological, clinical and operational challenges, TasP raises unprecedented social challenges at individual and population levels. Methods The trial began in March 2012. Innovative research tools are being implemented at each stage of the TasP intervention: repeat home-based questionnaires with household heads and individual household members; specific questionnaires for the HIV-infected individuals attending trial clinics and for those who choose not enter HIV care; combined with in-depth semi-structured individual qualitative interviews, repeat focus groups discussions (consumer panels) using participatory methods. Results We will be able to describe precisely participation in the trial and to understand the social determinants of uptake in terms of repeat HIV testing, linkage to and retention in HIV care; the impact of this TasP strategy on quality of life; the economic impact on households and the healthcare system; and consequences for people’s life in terms of HIV disclosure, stigma, sexual behaviours, social support, treatment experience and adherence. Conclusions TasP is not just a biomedical intervention. Understanding the consequences of implementing universal HIV testing and ART on individual behaviour changes and community social norms is crucial to explain any observe impact on HIV incidence.
  • Larmarange Joseph, Imrie John, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Iwuji Collins, Lert France et ANRS 12249 TasP Study Group (2013) « Addressing social science in a HIV Treatment as Prevention trial in South Africa » (communication orale n°CS12#1), présenté à 2nd International Conference for the Social Sciences and Humanities in HIV, Paris.
    Résumé : Models show that universal HIV testing and early antiretroviral treatment (ART) could lead to reduced HIV incidence and potential eradication under assumptions that have yet to be observed in real life – high coverage and frequent repeat HIV testing, high levels of linkage and retention in care. ANRS 12249 Treatment as Prevention (TasP) trial in rural KwaZulu-Natal aims to evaluate acceptability, feasibility and efficacy of this strategy. It has two components: home-based testing of all ≥16 years every six months with immediate versus standard ART initiation for HIV-infected individuals (HIV+). TasP is a biomedical intervention raising unprecedented social challenges. Relationships between individual and community factors, their interactions and implications are all being investigated using innovative quantitative and qualitative tools. Key issues addressed include: Who accepts repeat testing/immediate ART and why? What are the obstacles? How TasP impacts on people’s lives in terms of quality of life; HIV disclosure; stigmatisation, relationships; sexual behaviours; perceptions; social support; treatment experience and adherence? Economic impact for households and health care systems? What are the changes at community level during TasP implementation and influences on individual behaviours? These are investigated in three groups: the general population; HIV+ attending clinics; and those who do not entre care, for a comprehensive understanding of the determinants of uptake.

  • Larmarange Joseph et Le Cœur Sophie (2013) La situation de l’épidémie VIH/Sida en 2013, Fiche d'actualité, Paris : Ined, 3 p. http://www.ined.fr/fr/tout_savoir_population/fiches_actualite/sida_2013/.
    Résumé : Dans son bilan pour l'année 2012, l'ONUSIDA estime à 35,3 millions le nombre de personnes infectées par le VIH dans le monde, avec 2,3 millions de nouvelles infections et 1,6 million de décès dans l'année. L'Afrique sub-saharienne est de loin la région du monde la plus touchée (25 millions de personnes infectées), suivie par l'Asie du Sud et du Sud-Est (4,8 millions). Le poids de l'épidémie dans un pays s'exprime par la proportion de personnes infectées dans l'ensemble de la population adulte (ou prévalence). Elle varie fortement d'un pays à l'autre, le maximum étant atteint en Afrique australe : plus de 20 % de la population adulte dans certains pays !

  • Larmarange Joseph et Le Cœur Sophie (2013) The current situation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic 2013, Information sheet, Paris : Ined, 3 p. http://www.ined.fr/en/everything_about_population/news/aids_2013/.
    Résumé : According to UNAIDS estimates for the year 2012, 35.3 million persons are infected with the HIV virus worldwide and there were 2.3 million new infections and 1.6 million deaths that year. Sub-Saharan Africa is by far the hardest-hit region, with 25 million people infected, followed by South and Southeast Asia, with a combined total of 4.8 million. The burden of the epidemic in a given country is expressed by the proportion of infected persons among the entire adult population, or prevalence. Prevalence varies greatly by country; the highest rates are in Southern Africa; in some Southern African countries over 20% of the adult population is infected.
  • Larmarange Joseph, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Iwuji Collins, Imrie John, Lert France, Dabis François, Newell Marie-Louise et ANRS 12249 TasP Study Group (2013) « Acceptability and Uptake of Repeat Home-based HIV Counselling and Testing in Rural South Africa. Preliminary Data of the ANRS 12249 TasP Trial » (poster n°2406992), présenté à 17th International Conference on AIDS and STIs in Africa (ICASA), Cape Town.
    Résumé : Background: The ANRS 12249 Treatment as Prevention (TasP) trial is assessing whether HIV testing of all members of a community, followed by immediate ART initiation of all HIV-infected individuals, regardless of immunological or clinical staging, will prevent onward sexual transmission and reduce HIV incidence in the same population. The implementation of universal and repeat home-based HIV testing is not documented yet in a high HIV incidence and prevalence context. Methods: A cluster-randomised trial is implemented using a phased-approach in the Hlabisa sub-district (KwaZulu Natal, South Africa) where more than 20% of adults are living with HIV. The trial started in March 2012; ten clusters are implemented in the first phase to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the two consecutive interventions (test then treat). The HIV testing strategy consists in a large range of community and clinic HIV testing options including the implementation of 6-monthly rounds of home-based HIV counselling and testing by dedicated counsellors. At each home visit, trial participants are administered individual questionnaires and offered a rapid HIV test. Results: As of April 30, 2013, 6 907 eligible subjects (16 years or above) were registered in six clusters and 5 122 (74%) were contacted. HIV status of 3 923 (76.5% of those contacted) was ascertained, 3 256 accepting the rapid HIV test at home and 667 being already aware of their HIV-positive status. We will present updated data from the first four trial clusters, where all eligible members of the community will have been offered three rounds of home-based HIV testing within 18 months. Uptake of HIV testing at each round will be reported. Uptake of repeat HIV testing will be measured among those testing HIV-negative at first round and who accept repeat HIV testing at rounds 2 and 3. We will also describe the reasons for HIV test refusal. Finally, we will present participants' attitudes regarding repeat HIV testing, and changes between rounds 1 and 3. Conclusions: Acceptance of regular and frequent HIV testing is key to the community-based efficacy of treatment as prevention initiatives in settings with very high incidence. Our data will provide first indications of whether repeat home-based HIV testing is acceptable and feasible in such a rural South African region.

2012


  • Brouard Nicolas, Ambrosetti Elena, Désesquelles Aline, Duthé Géraldine, Giudici Cristina, Larmarange Joseph, Meslé France et Demopædia team (2012) « DEMOPÆDIA: an open encyclopedia on demography based on the UN/IUSSP Multilingual Demographic Dictionary » (poster), présenté à 46th Scientific Meeting of the Italian Statistical Society, Roma. http://meetings.sis-statistica.org/index.php/sm/sm2012.
    Résumé : In 1953, the Population Commission of the United Nations requested the preparation of the widely-known Multilingual Demographic Dictionary (MDD), a milestone among the international demographic literature. The review of this work was promoted by the United Nations Population Commission, and started in 1981 with the second edition of the French dictionary, followed by the English (1982), Spanish (1985), German (1987) and about 10 other languages mostly among Asian languages. An important work (2006-2010) consisted in providing the electronic forms of the now out of print old dictionaries. Using adequate tools we discovered numerous errors and omissions and decided at the IUSSP conference of Marrakech in 2009 to produce a so called “harmonized” edition of the MDD, letting new modules, incorporating about 100 new demographic concepts introduced during the 80’s. These harmonized editions capture the social, political and economic changes that affected the population studies from the sixties to the eighties. But prior to updating the MDD with modern concepts like Reproductive Health, an important step is to provide new printed books. The French and Italian modules, printed as well as online, will be available for this conference under the Creative Common Share Alike license. The next step of the project consists in the realization of a renewed, innovative, on line wiki-based multilingual encyclopedic demographic dictionary: a wiki-based Open Encyclopedia on Demography, which represents a potential platform for sharing and building a wider knowledge in demography and population studies. The Encyclopedia was opened for the first time to the members of the IUSSP in 2009 and to PAA members at the recent San Francisco conference in May 2012. The aim of the proposed poster is to explain the history and future steps of Demopædia: an online training will be proposed during the poster session.

  • Demopædia (2012) Dictionnaire Démographique Multilingue, seconde édition unifiée, volume français, Paris : Demopædia, 195 p. http://fr-ii.demopaedia.org.

  • Drabo Youssoufou Joseph, Guiard Schmid Jean-Baptiste, Némandé Steave, Anoma Camille Kacou, Awondo Patrick, Bassonon Dieudonné, Canavera Mark, Cherabi Kemal, Compaoré Cyrille Alexandre, Dao Mamadou, Dézé Charlotte, Diack Demba, Dieng Mamadou, Larmarange Joseph, Linard Françoise, Ndiaye Bara, Ouédraogo Georges, Renaud Fabrice, Soulama Kalifa et Traoré Cheick (2012) Comprendre et travailler avec les hommes ayant des relations sexuelles avec d'autres hommes : pour une prévention combinée et une prise en charge globale des IST et du VIH, Ouagadougou : Réseau Africain des Formations sur le VIH. http://www.plateforme-elsa.org/_files/Manuel_RAF_VIH_MSM.pdf.

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